Story by ABIGAIL ENGLEMAN
8 February 2018
The electron has fascinated humankind for centuries. Here are some highlights from the annals of science.
Around 600 B.C.
Thales, an ancient Greek “thinker,” notices that amber attracts small objects when rubbed with fur.
An English scientist coins the term “electricus" to describe the property Thales observed centuries before. From the Greek word for amber, the word later engenders the terms "electricity" and "electron."
Brainy Ben Franklin takes one for the team by tying a key to a kite during a thunderstorm. He convinces the world that static electricity and lightning are, in fact, the same thing.
Alessandro Volta learns to store steady, reliable electrical currents in the first batteries.
Some astute scientists question whether something's going on between electricity and magnetism. After observing them together on numerous occasions, they confirm their suspicions with a series of discoveries; electromagnetism becomes the "it couple" of the century.
Michael Faraday uses electricity to split compounds into individual elements, a process termed "electrolysis." He is also to thank for the principles of electromagnetic induction, generation and transmission.
James Clerk Maxwell proposes that electromagnetism exists as waves travelling the speed of light, backing this revolutionary thought with his equations.
Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison invent and develop the light bulb, changing forever the way we see the world.
George Johnstone Stoney proposes a fundamental unit of electricity called the "electron."
J.J. Thompson's experiments conclude the existence of the tiny, negatively charged particles named by Stoney.
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers that, at extremely low temperatures, electrical resistance in mercury drops to zip, a phenomenon that came to be called superconductivity.
Ernst Ruska builds the first electron microscope. Using beams of electrons to create images, it provides greater resolution and magnification than light microscopes.
Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan Cormack invent a new use for X-rays (which, like light, are produced by the movement of electrons in atoms). Their system uses X-rays in CT scans to look inside the body’s tissues.
Tim Berners Lee invents the World Wide Web, which combined electronic networks around the world to create what we now know as the internet.
There are 5.1 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide. We have electrons to thank for that.