8 February 2018

Electron Timeline

The electron has fascinated humankind for centuries. Here are some highlights from the annals of science.

Story by ABIGAIL ENGLEMAN

Around 600 B.C.

Catching static electricity in action

Thales, an ancient Greek “thinker,” notices that amber attracts small objects when rubbed with fur.
1600

It's 'electric' (boogie woogie woogie!)

An English scientist coins the term “electricus" to describe the property Thales observed centuries before. From the Greek word for amber, the word later engenders the terms "electricity" and "electron."
1752

Sly as a kite

Brainy Ben Franklin takes one for the team by tying a key to a kite during a thunderstorm. He convinces the world that static electricity and lightning are, in fact, the same thing.
1800

Taking charge

Alessandro Volta learns to store steady, reliable electrical currents in the first batteries.
1820

Match made in science

Some astute scientists question whether something's going on between electricity and magnetism. After observing them together on numerous occasions, they confirm their suspicions with a series of discoveries; electromagnetism becomes the "it couple" of the century.
1832

Faraday furthers the field

Michael Faraday uses electricity to split compounds into individual elements, a process termed "electrolysis." He is also to thank for the principles of electromagnetic induction, generation and transmission.
1865

Maxwell makes waves

James Clerk Maxwell proposes that electromagnetism exists as waves travelling the speed of light, backing this revolutionary thought with his equations.
1878

The world gets lit

Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison invent and develop the light bulb, changing forever the way we see the world.
1894

Name recognition

George Johnstone Stoney proposes a fundamental unit of electricity called the "electron."
1897

Science goes subatomic

J.J. Thompson's experiments conclude the existence of the tiny, negatively charged particles named by Stoney.
1911

Fast and frosty

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers that, at extremely low temperatures, electrical resistance in mercury drops to zip, a phenomenon that came to be called superconductivity.
1931

Coming into focus

Ernst Ruska builds the first electron microscope. Using beams of electrons to create images, it provides greater resolution and magnification than light microscopes.
1975

Peering beyond the skin

Godfrey Hounsfield and Allan Cormack invent a new use for X-rays (which, like light, are produced by the movement of electrons in atoms). Their system uses X-rays in CT scans to look inside the body’s tissues.
1989

Electrons connect us, part 1

Tim Berners Lee invents the World Wide Web, which combined electronic networks around the world to create what we now know as the internet.
2017

Electrons connect us, part 2

There are 5.1 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide. We have electrons to thank for that.
Last modified on 9 February 2018