Other Techniques

These include Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange and Liquid Chromatography.

Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange

H/D exchange experiments are based on the chemical reaction of replacing covalently bonded hydrogens with deuterium atoms to reveal the tertiary structure information of proteins.

Liquid Chromatography

Chromatography, literally "color writing," was first used by Russian botanist Mikhail Tswett, who used columns of calcium carbonate to separate plant pigments such as cholorphyll and carotenoids in 1901.