FDMR is a version of Electron Magnetic Resonance (EMR) that depends on sweeping the frequency instead of magnetic field, as is the standard in EMR. As such, it is of particular value in determining the zero-field splitting (zfs) of paramagnetic transition metal ions and their clusters. On a more general level, FDMR is applicable to any chemical/physical electron spin system with zero-field energy gap(s) such as high-spin paramagnets, ferro- or anti-ferromagnets as long as the gaps appear in the frequency/energy range of the FDMR spectrometer based on BWOs (backward wave oscillators, currently 70 GHz – 1.2 THz or 2.3 – 40 cm–1).
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