EMR Measurement Techniques
Technically Antiferro and Ferromagnetic Resonance utilize the same technique as paramagnetic resonance, but the exchange interaction leads to different physics.
Normally Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is measured by measuring the absorption of the microwaves. In some conducting samples the absorption of resonant spins can be measured by detecting a change in electrical conduction when resonant microwaves are applied to the sample. This technique is then typically referred to as Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance (EDMR).
EPR and ESR are two names of the same technique (EPR is preferred by the chemists and biologists while ESR is a favorite of physicists) which depends on detecting transitions between the magnetic field-split spin sublevels in systems with unpaired electrons, in particular, in paramagnets.
Hydrostatic pressure has long proven to be an excellent tool to continuously tune structural, electronic and magnetic properties of matter. It offers an excellent possibility to modify magnetic exchange interactions without having to induce chemical changes to the investigated material.
PELDOR, also known as DEER (Double Electron Electorn Resonance), has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for studying the topology and associated structural changes in proteins and nuclear acids.
Pulse techniques improve EPR resolution by using a sequence of short microwave pulses to select spin species to be detected, to separate spin interactions, and to obtain information at time domain.