EMR Measurement Techniques

Antiferromagnetic and Ferromagnetic Resonance

Technically Antiferro and Ferromagnetic Resonance utilize the same technique as paramagnetic resonance, but the exchange interaction leads to different physics.

Cyclotron Resonance

The physics of cyclotron resonance (CR) and angle-dependent magneto-resistance oscillations (AMRO - See DC Transport) in low-dimensional metals is the same

Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance (EDMR)

Normally Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is measured by measuring the absorption of the microwaves. In some conducting samples the absorption of resonant spins can be measured by detecting a change in electrical conduction when resonant microwaves are applied to the sample. This technique is then typically referred to as Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance (EDMR).

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance / Electron Spin Resonance in DC Fields

EPR and ESR are two names of the same technique (EPR is preferred by the chemists and biologists while ESR is a favorite of physicists) which depends on detecting transitions between the magnetic field-split spin sublevels in systems with unpaired electrons, in particular, in paramagnets.

Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR)

Electron Nuclear Double Resonance is a technique of measuring the hyperfine and quadrupole splitting of nuclear spins that are coupled to the electron spins.

Frequency Domain Magnetic Resonance (FDMR)

FDMR is a version of Electron Magnetic Resonance (EMR) that depends on sweeping the frequency instead of magnetic field, as is the standard in EMR.

High Pressure EPR

Hydrostatic pressure has long proven to be an excellent tool to continuously tune structural, electronic and magnetic properties of matter. It offers an excellent possibility to modify magnetic exchange interactions without having to induce chemical changes to the investigated material.

Nuclear Gamma Resonance (NGR) or Mössbauer spectroscopy

Metastable 57Co nuclei undergo a nuclear electron capture (EC) process that yields 57Fe nuclei in an excited state with an I = 5/2 nuclear spin.

Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

Overhauser DNP has been demonstrated to increase the sensitivity of NMR experiments by one order of magnitude at fields up to 9.4 teslas (T) (corresponding to a NMR proton frequency of 400 MHz).

Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR)

PELDOR, also known as DEER (Double Electron Electorn Resonance), has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for studying the topology and associated structural changes in proteins and nuclear acids.

Pulsed ESR/EPR

Pulse techniques improve EPR resolution by using a sequence of short microwave pulses to select spin species to be detected, to separate spin interactions, and to obtain information at time domain.