MagLab experts fine-tuned a furnace for pressure-cooking a novel superconducting magnet. Now they're about to build its big brother.
Made with high-temperature superconductors, the National MagLab's newest instrument shatters a world record and opens new frontiers in science.
In a well-run library, an authoritative "Sssshhhh!!" will quiet things down in a jiffy.
At the MagLab, we value our quiet time, too — especially in the Millikelvin Facility, home to some of our most sensitive equipment and experiments. But we need more than a pursed-lipped librarian: We need a building designed from top to bottom to shield its magnets from the noise of external electromagnetic (EM) radiation.
And we're about to get it. We recently broke ground on an extension to the existing Millikelvin Facility, currently home to three superconducting magnets that scientists use for experiments at ultra-low temperatures.
The 1,640-square-foot addition will house two new superconducting magnets, including the much-anticipated 32 tesla all-superconducting magnet. Designed and built at the MagLab, the 32 T will shatter existing records for field strength in superconducting magnets when it comes online later this year.
The design of the $1.2-million Millikelvin addition reflects the many lessons learned from two decades operating the existing facility, said MagLab Facility Director John Kynoch. The walls of the windowless structure will include a layer of copper, effectively creating an EM radiation-blocking Faraday cage. The magnets will be positioned safely below ground, surrounded by concrete reinforced with non-magnetic rebar. The extension's high-quality electrical grounds will be separate from the main building.
Even the LED lighting and air conditioning are designed to minimize noise, air currents and temperature fluctuations that could disturb finicky experiments, said Tim Murphy, who oversees Millikelvin as director of the DC Field Facility.
"If your building temperature swings wildly," said Murphy, "you can see that in your data."
Years in the planning, the addition is designed not just to house magnets, but to do science.
"We're treating the building as part of the instrument," said Murphy, "not just some place you put the instrument."
The new building is slated for completion in the spring of 2017.
Text by Kristen Coyne. Photo by Stephen Bilenky.
This week at the lab, the staff bids farewell to a scientist who joined the lab even before there was a building to work in.
William Denis Markiewicz, who goes by his middle name, has worked a quarter century in the MagLab’s Magnet Science & Technology department, a career book-ended by two flagship magnets that he designed.
Markiewicz was recruited by the brand new lab to oversee design and construction of the world-record 900 MHz Ultra-Wide Bore NMR spectrometer magnet.
Markiewicz vividly remembers those heady first years.
"I thought that I would be part of something brand new, and part of all of the excitement and high expectations that come with the start of something new," he said. "And I was not disappointed."
Now 11 years old, the famed 900 MHz magnet enabled nearly 70 publications on health-related discoveries in its first decade — and is still going strong.
Markiewicz departs the lab just as another magnet he designed, the 32 tesla all-superconducting magnet, is in its final stages of testing. Projected to smash magnet records and enable exciting new science in the years ahead, it uses novel high-temperature superconductors that generate stronger magnetic fields than conventional low-temperature superconductors.
The 32 tesla magnet program, said Markiewicz, "is an example of a very large and capable team at the MagLab working together to produce something that is very unique. There is no other facility now that is capable of doing this."
Among other highlights of his career, Markiewicz received the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers‘ Award for Continuing and Significant Contributions in the Field of Large Scale Applications of Superconductivity in 2015, and Florida State University's Distinguished Scholar Award in 2008.
Text by Kristen Coyne. Photo by Stephen Bilenky.
This week at the lab, we're trying a magnet on for size.
A research magnet is made of a set of coils engineered from a current-carrying material — a fancy version of the electromagnet many kids make in school using a wire, battery and nail. Typically, four or five coils are slid one inside the next like Russian nesting dolls.
This week, we're slipping the second coil of the highly anticipated 32 tesla all superconducting magnet over the inner-most coil, then making any necessary adjustments. Like a good pair of jeans, the fit should be snug but not tight, with a mere millimeter between the two coils.
"Assembling the coils and the entire electrical circuit is an intricate job, and an exiting one," said project leader Huub Weijers. "After almost seven years of development, design, testing and construction of components, the final magnet is taking shape in front of our eyes."
These two coils, which contain about 6 miles of superconducting tape made of the novel, high-temperature superconductor yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO). But YBCO is only one layer in this magnet. Those coils will soon be nested inside five more of coils made of conventional superconductors, three of niobium-tin and two of niobium-titanium.
The finished, 2.3-ton magnet system, when completed this summer, will join the MagLab’s roster of world-record magnets. At 32 tesla, it will be by far the strongest superconducting user magnet in the world, surpassing the current record of 23.5 tesla.
"It’s a difficult task to work through the many details of a new technology," said the magnet's lead designer Adam Voran, who managed the computer modeling for the project. "But the reward of seeing those meticulous designs being born into a tangible reality is exhilarating."
Photo by Stephen Bilenky / Text by Kristen Coyne.
On the road toward a groundbreaking all-superconducting magnet, the MagLab successfully tests a prototype that is already in the record books.
Successfully tested in 2017, this magnet is the world's most powerful superconducting magnet — by a long shot.
A prototype high-temperature superconducting coil for the 32 T all-superconducting magnet was constructed with YBCO tape and successfully tested in the large-bore resistive magnet at the MagLab.