Pulsed magnets are designed to operate near their structural limits to be able to generate extremely high magnetic fields. The coils have a limited life expectancy and thus need to be replaced on occasion. Fabrication of these large coils are now being done at the MagLab where advanced nondestructive examinations can be performed. Because of more rigorous quality controls and improvements in high-strength conductors and reinforcement materials, the lifetime of these coils can be extended.

A material already known for its unique behavior is found to carry current in a way never before observed.

Discovery could help scientists better understand exotic behaviors of electrons.

This week at the lab, a MagLab physicist is developing a measurement technique that will help scientists identify and understand new states of matter in a new class of metals analogous to graphene.

The MagLab offers dozens of measurement techniques to scientists — everything from AC magnetic susceptibility to ultrafast magneto-optics. Brad Ramshaw of the MagLab's Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico, is modernizing a technique called pulsed echo ultrasound.

If you yell across a valley to a canyon on the other side, you can figure out how far it is by measuring the time between your holler and the echo it generates. "That's what pulsed echo ultrasound is, except we're not doing it in the canyon," explained Ramshaw, whose project is funded by a two-year, $430,000 grant from LANL. "We're taking a little piece of material and we're yelling at it."

The twist is that instead of measuring distance (they already know the length of the material), they are measuring the speed at which the sound travels, which differs depending on the material, magnetic field and temperature. This data can shed light on the physics happening inside the material.

Of course, it's a little more complex than shouting across a canyon, Ramshaw explained. "We have an ultrasonic transducer — like the ones used for ultrasound imaging in a hospital, but much smaller — that sends a pulse of sound at the material. Then the sound travels across it, bounces off the end and comes back to the transducer."

It's no coincidence that Ramshaw is developing the technique at the Pulsed Field Facility, which houses instruments that create brief pulses of magnetic fields (measured in milliseconds) as strong as 100 tesla, the strongest such magnets in the world.

Fields that high, used in concert with this technique, are expected to reveal new physics about Weyl metals, which can be thought of as three-dimensional analogs of graphene. A one-atom thick compound with exciting properties — incredible strength, flexibility and electrical and heat conductivity — graphene holds great promise for communications, transportation and other industries. The hope is that Weyl metals will hold similar promise for electronics applications, but will be easier to manipulate and manufacture.

Scientists have been aggressively studying graphene since they learned how to make it in 2004. The technique Ramshaw is developing will open a new playground for physicists to explore its 3-D analog, including the unusual way its electrons behave, as if they had no mass.

The Pulsed Field Facility's world-record fields are, " … enough to do crazy electronic things to these materials," said Ramshaw. "This is a capability that users want and we now have the resources to develop it."

Text by Kristen Coyne

A dusting of snow, elk lapping from a stream, pines perfuming the air: As a winter wonderland, nothing is lacking — with the possible exception of a certain jolly old elf.

This week at the lab, that seasonal postcard is coming to life at the National MagLab’s Pulsed Field Facility, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico. Although the herds of elk and mule deer don’t realize it, that cool, stream water comes courtesy of the facility’s pulsed magnets, including the world-record 100 tesla multi-shot magnet.

To create such high fields, those magnets require massive bursts of energy from a 1.4 gigawatt 60-foot tall generator – which in turn produces intense heat. To keep things cool, 2,500 gallons of water per minute run through the generator when it’s in operation. After that water is treated as part of a LANL water reuse program, about 28,000 gallons a month is released into the surrounding Pajarito Plateau, home to the elk, bear, mountain lions and other wildlife.

Because the cooling system must be flushed regularly, research technologist Yates Coulter will be clocking in at the lab even over the holidays, helping keep the local ungulates — and any visitors that might pass through this week – hydrated. Coulter will also perform another critical maintenance task: letting the generator’s 120-foot-long shaft slowly turn for a few hours a week. If the 240-ton metal bar is left idle for too long, it will bend under its own weight.

Coulter doesn't mind coming into the lab when most people are off: each commute is another chance to commune with nature, regardless of the season. "For me the wildlife are familiar friends," said Coulter, who also encounters his furry and feathered friends during lunchtime bike rides around LANL. "They are a comforting sight."

Image courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory / Text by Kristen Coyne

Ni3TeO6 provides a new approach to coupling magnetism to ferroelectricity with a record large response. We measured this material's magnetic and electric properties across an extended range of temperature and magnetic field and compared with theoretical calculations to extract a model that describes the underlying reason for a large magnetoelectric coupling. High magnetic fields were key to establishing the magnetic Hamiltonian. This work is motivating the discovery of further 3d-4d oxide materials with large magnetoelectric couplings.

Using magnetic fields of over 90 T, the effective mass in the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x was shown to be strongly enhanced as the material is doped toward optimal Tc.

Los Alamos explores experimental path to potential 'next theory of superconductivity'

A novel approach combining pulsed field optical FBG strain measurements in world-class magnets, with Density Functional based calculations to pinpoint the peculiar nanopantograph mechanism behind the magnetoelastic coupling, allows researchers to conclude that magnetic field and pressure are alternative ways to tune the quantum properties of the Shastry-Sutherland compound SrCu2(BO3)2

Scientists using MagLab magnets bolster theory that quantum fluctuations drive strange electronic phenomena.

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