Scientists explore new energy sources, the World Wide Web spins a vast network and nanotechnology is born.


Quantum Hall effect

German physicist Klaus von Klitzing discovers that when electrical conductors are subjected to strong magnetic fields and low temperatures, their resistance varies in discrete quantized jumps rather than in a smooth, continuous manner, a phenomenon known as the quantum Hall effect.

Scanning tunneling microscopy

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which is based on the so-called tunneling current that begins flowing when a sharp tip approaches a conducting surface at a distance of about one nanometer, is invented.

Weakons & bosons

At the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), evidence of weakons (W and Z bosons) is produced, providing support for the theoretical link between weak and electromagnetic interactions.

Neo magnets

Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, sometimes simply referred to as neo magnets, are first developed.

Magnetic force microscope

The magnetic force microscope, a variant of the non contact atomic force microscope, is demonstrated for the first time. The instrument accomplishes magnetic resolution by the magnetostatic interaction between a ferromagnetic tip and a sample's stray micromagnetic fields.

High-temperature superconductivity

For the first time, scientists achieve "high-temperature" superconductivity (above 77 degrees Kelvin) with a ceramic compound of yttrium, barium, copper and oxygen. Though the temperatures required to make YBCO superconductive are still quite low, they are high enough to be created with liquid nitrogen, much cheaper than the liquid helium required for lower temperatures.

Giant magnetoresistance

German and French physicists discover the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which results from electron-spin effects in artificial multilayers of magnetic materials. The discovery marks the beginning of the field of spintronics, or spin-based electronics.

World Wide Web

Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, invents and demonstrates the World Wide Web (WWW), merging the technologies of personal computers, computer networking and hypertext into a global information system.

Magnetic x-ray spectromicroscop

A magnetic x-ray spectromicroscope, combining the photoemission and magneto-optic Kerr effect techniques, is demonstrated.

The Prius

Toyota launches the world's first mass-production hybrid vehicle, the Prius, which runs on both electricity and gas and offers better fuel efficiency and lower emissions than traditional vehicles.

Ørsted satellite

The Danish Ørsted satellite, equipped to provide high-precision measurements of the Earth's magnetic field, is successfully launched.

Electricity online

Electricity is marketed on the Internet for the first time.


The first commercial wave power station, called the Land Installed Marine Powered Energy Transformer (LIMPET), begins generating electricity on the Isle of Islay, Scotland.

Electricity from water

A team of Canadian researchers directly generates an electrical current by pumping tap water through numerous microchannels in a disk made of glass.
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